Monument to People's Heroes
The Monument to the People's Heroes stands in the center of Tiananmen Square, north of the Memorial Hall of Chairman Mao. Four hundred and sixty three meters south from Tiananmen, and four hundred and forty meters north from Zhengyangmen, it coincides with the south-north center axis. The Monument to the People's Heroes, together with Tiananmen and Zhengyangmen form a harmonious and consistent building complex.
The Monument to the People's Heroes, constructed from August 1952 to May 1958, was the first largescale memorial built in New China.
Towering 10 stories high, its northern fagade is dominated by the inscription, "Eternal Glory to the People's Heroes," in Mao Zedong's hand.
The 17,000 pieces of marble and granite, brought in from Shandong Province and Fangshan on the outskirts of Beijing, weigh over 10,000 metric tons. Of such high quality the monument is projected to last 800 to 1,000 years.
The lower plinth is decorated with 10 twometerhigh marble basreliefs depicting the Chinese revolutionary movement over the past hundred years.
At the base of the tablet are eight-huge bas-reliefs carved out of white marble covering the revolutionary episodes.
l)Burning Opium in the Opium War in 1840.
A revolutionary movement broke out to resist the smuggling of large quantities of opium into China by the British imperialists. In June 1839, altogether 1,150,000 kilogrammes of opium was destroyed. It showed the Chinese people’s determination to struggle against imperialism and marked the beginning of their resistance.
2)The Jintian Village Uprising in Taiping Revolution
The Taiping Revolution was the biggest and longest revolutionary peasant uprising in the Chinese history. Led by Hong Xiuquan, this great anti-imperialist, anti-feudal peasant movement first broke out in Jintian Village in Guangxi in 1851. The revolutionary flames soon spread to six provinces and the revolutionaries established their capital in Nanjing.
3)Wuchang Uprising (1911 Revolution)
1911 was the year in which the decisive battle against the Manchu Government was fought. Late on the evening of October 10, the revolutionary forces wrecked the cannon in front of the office building of the governor of both Hunan and Hubei provinces, pulled down the royal flag and broke through the gate of the governor’s mansion. The first success of the revolution was at Wuhan. The last feudal dynasty collapsed under the fierce attack of the revolutionary torrent on October 10, 1911.
4)May 4th Movement
An anti-imperialist patriotic movement broke out on May 4, 1919 in Beijing. It was the turning point of the Chinese democratic revolution.
On that day, several thousand Beijing students held a rally in front of Tian’anmen. A parade followed in which participants held aloft banners inscribed “No signature to the ‘peace treaty’! ” and distributed the leaflets “Uphold our sovereignty ! Punish the traitors ! ”
5)May 30th Movement
A demonstration by Shanghai workers and students on May 30,1925 ushered in a vigorous anti-imperialist movement. Demonstrators’ banners thundered “Down with the imperialists!” and “Revenge GuZhenghong, a splendid representative of China’s workers shot down by the imperialists ! ”
Chiang Kai-shek launched a coup on April 12, 1927 and began slaughtering Communists. To save the revolution and continue struggle, the Chinese Communist Party fired the first shot at the Kuomintang reactionaries in the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927.
This was the day the Chinese Communist Party began to lead the revolutionary armed forces independently against the counter-revolutionary armed forces. Hence August 1 is the birthday of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army.
7)War of Resistance Against Japan
Armymen and civilians in the revolutionary base areas carried out Chairman Mao’s thinking on protracted war. Tie Chinese Communist Party called on the people’s army to go to the enemy’s rear to launch guerrilla warfare, mine warfare, etc. War educated the people and the people won the war.
8)Successful Crossing of the Yangtze River
This was the prelude to the liberation of the whole country. An army one million strong made a forced crossing of the Yangtze River on April 21, 1949 to overthrow the Chiang Kai-shek regime:
On the right are the masses helping the PLA men to make the crossing. On the left are the liberated Nanjing people welcoming the entrance of the PLA men. The liberation of the Kuomintang capital heralded the liberation of the whole country.
The epigraph on the south side inscribed by Zhou Enlai is as follows:
Eternal glory to the heroes of the people who laid down their lives in the people's war of liberation and the people's revolution in the past three years!
Eternal glory to the heroes of the people who laid down their lives in the people's war of liberation and the people's revolution in the past thirty years!
Eternal glory to the heroes of the people who from 1840 laid down their lives in many struggles against domestic and foreign enemies for national independence, freedom and the well-being of the people!
(Note: the "past three years" refers roughly to the Chinese Liberation War (1946-1949); the "past thirty years" refers to the New Democratic Revolution from the May Fourth Movement in 1919 to the end of the revolution in 1949; and "from 1840" refers to the general struggle of the Chinese people against the various external and internal strife from the beginning of the Opium Wars to the establishment of the People's Republic of China.)
Tian'anmen Square and Its Surrounding
Gate of Heavenly Peace
Chairman Mao Memorial Hall
Great Hall of the People
National Museum of China
Tiananmen Underground Passage & Sculptures and Arrow Gate