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 Potala Palace布达拉宫
 
 
I History of Potala Palace 布达拉宫历史
 
The Potala Palace was built in the seventh century and it has already had a long history of over 1300 years. In 641, Songtsan Gambo, ruler of the Tubo Kingdom, had the Potala Palace built for Wen Chen Konjo (Princess Wencheng) of the Tang Dynasty, whom he was soon to marry. This structure was later burned to the ground during a war (The hall for worshiping bodhisattva Avalokitesvara and the statues of Songtsan Gambo and Wencheng Konjo now displaying are said being the survivors of the war) and was rebuilt in the 17th century by the Fifth Dalai Lama. Repeated repairs and expansions until 1645 finally brought the palace to its present scale. Over the past three centuries, the palace gradually became a place where the Dalai Lamas live and work and a place for keeping the remains of successive Dalai Lama.
布达拉宫建于7世纪,它已有了长达一千三百多年的历史。唐时期,公元641年,吐蕃王朝的领袖松赞干布为将要与之成婚的文成公主建造了布达拉宫。不过在后来的一场战争中,这座建筑却被毁了,十七世纪的时候,五世达赖喇嘛组织了修复工作。反复维修和扩建,直到1645年,才有了宫殿目前的规模。在过去的三个世纪里,达赖喇嘛一直住在宫殿里,以确保达赖喇嘛的持续传承。
 
The Potala Palace has always been the political center of Tibet since the fifth Dalai Lama (1645-1693). In 1645, the Fifth Dalai Lama, feeling confined at Drepung Monastery, ordered the construction of a new structure that would accommodate his new role as both a religious and political leader. The Potala Palace was then built as the imposing and self-confident expression of the new theocracy. After the ascension of the Seventh Dalai Lama (1728-1757), who established a summer palace at the Norbulingka, the Potala Palace was used predominantly during winter, then it comes its other name “Winter Palace.”
从五世达赖喇嘛(1645年~1693年)起,布达拉宫就已经是西藏的政治中心。1645年,五世达赖喇嘛认为哲蚌寺不能与他这个西藏的宗教,政治领袖相匹配,于是命人诶他的新身份修建新建筑。布达拉宫是新神权政治的自信实施的第一步。七世达赖喇嘛在罗布林卡建造了夏宫,布达拉宫主要用于冬季,所以也就有它的另一个名字“冬宫”。
II Structure of Potala Palace布达拉宫的结构
 
The Potala Palace is 3,756.5 meters above sea level, covering an area of over 360,000 square meters (about 32 acres), measuring 360 meters from east to west and 270 meters from south to north. It has 13 stories, and is 117 meters high. The walls of the Palace are over one meter in thickness, the thickest sections being five meters. They are painted with huge colorful murals, which make it beautiful and lively.布达拉宫海拔高3,756.5米,占地面积 360,000平方米(约32亩),东西约360米,南北270米。布达拉宫主楼高117米,看似13层,实际9层。宫墙厚约一米,最厚处约五米,宫墙上布满美丽,栩栩如生的壁画。
 
The magnificent Potala Palace is made of wood and stone. All the walls are of granite, and all the roofs and windows are of wood. The overhanging eaves, the upturned roof corners, and the gilded brass tiles and gilded pillars inscribed with Buddhist scriptures, bottles, and makara fish as well as the gold-winged birds decorating the roof ridges contribute much to the beauty of the hip-and-gable roofs.壮丽的布达拉宫是木石结构建筑。统一花岗石的墙身;木制屋顶及窗檐的外挑起翘设计;全部的铜瓦鎏金装饰,以及由经幢、宝瓶、摩羯鱼、金翅鸟做脊饰的点缀……这一切完美配合使整座宫殿显得富丽堂皇。
 
The stone-and-wood-structured Potala Palace consists of over 1000 rooms, seminary, chanting hal1, temples, various chambers for worshipping Buddha and chambers housing the stupas of several Dalai Lamas, which are covered with gold 1eaf and studded with jewels. In the rooms, there are tens of thousands of Buddha figures. Different in sizes and complex in designs, the figures look vivid and lovely.木石结构的布达拉宫共有一千多间房子,神学院,诵经阁,寺庙,又有议政、会客等场所,房间里有成千上万的佛像,不同大小,不同类型,但却都生动形象。
 
N Attractions of Potala Palace 布达拉宫的景点
 
Mainly comprised by the White Palace (administerial building) and the Red Palace (religious building), the Potala Palace is famous for its grand buildings, complicated constructions, devotional atmosphere and splendid artworks. The White Palace, comprising halls, temples and courtyards, serves as the living quarters of the Dalai Lama. From the east entrance of the palace, painted with images of Four Heavenly Kings, a broad corridor upwards leads to Deyang Shar courtyard, which used to be where Dalai Lamas watched operas. Around the large and open courtyard, there used to be a seminary and dormitories. West of the courtyard is the White Palace. There are three ladder stairs reaching inside of it, however, the central one was reserved for only Dalai Lamas and central government magistrates dispatched to Tibet. In the first hallway, there are huge murals describing the construction of Potala Palace and Jokhang Temple and the procession of Princess Wencheng reaching Tibet. On the south wall, visitors will see an edict signed with the Great Fifth's handprint. The White Palace mainly serves as the political headquarter and Dalai Lamas' living quarters. The West Chamber of Sunshine and the East Chamber of Sunshine lie as the roof of the White Palace. They belonged to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and the Fourteenth Dalai Lama respectively. Beneath the East Chamber of Sunshine is the largest hall in the White Palace, where Dalai Lamas ascended throne and ruled Tibet. 布达拉宫外观13层,高110米,自山脚向上,直至山顶。由东部的白宫(达赖喇嘛居住的地方),中部的红宫(佛殿及历代达赖喇嘛灵塔殿)组成。布达拉宫因它恢弘的建筑,复杂的结构,虔诚的宗教氛围和灿烂的艺术而闻名中外。白宫包括打听,司马庙,庭院,是达赖喇嘛的生活区。从宫殿的东入口处开始,有四大天王的画像的宽阔走廊,向上伸延至德阳厦,是达赖喇嘛观看戏剧和举行户外活动的场所,广场的南北两侧建有僧官学校等。广场的西边是白宫,它的内部有三个楼梯,中间一个是为达赖喇嘛和派遣到西藏的官员准备的。在第一个门厅里,那里有巨大的壁画,描述的是布达拉宫和大昭寺的建筑,文成公主入藏的过程。白宫,是达赖喇嘛的冬宫,也曾是原西藏地方政府的办事机构所在地,高七层。位于第四层中央的东有寂圆满大殿(措庆夏司西平措),是布达拉宫白宫最大的殿堂,面积717平方米,这里是达赖喇嘛坐床、亲政大典等重大宗教和政治活动场所。第五、六两层是摄政办公和生活用房等。最高处第七层两套达赖拉喇嘛冬季的起居宫,由于这里终日阳光普照,故称东、西日光殿。
 
The Red Palace, with seven golden roofs on its flat top, is renowned for its religious status, gorgeous stupas and precious culture relics. The dominant buildings of the Red Palace are the stupa-tombs halls of Dalai Lamas and kinds of halls for worshiping Buddha. It was constructed after the death of the Fifth Dalai Lama. The center of the complicated Red Palace is the Great West Hall, which records the Great Fifth Dalai Lama's life by its fine murals. In the East Chapel a two meters (6.5 feet) high statue of Tsong Khapa, the founder of Gelug which is Dalai Lama's lineage, is enshrined and worshipped. The South Chapel is where a silver statue of Padmasambhava and 8 bronze statues of his reincarnations are enshrined. On the floor above, there is a gallery which has a collection of 698 murals, portraying Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Dalai Lamas and great adepts and narrating jataka stories and significant Tibetan historic events. West of the Great West Hall locates the Thirteenth Dalai Lama's stupa hall. The North Chapel contains statues of Sakyamuni, Dalai Lamas and Medicine Buddha, and stupas of the Eighth, Ninth and Eleventh Dalai Lamas. 红宫位于布达拉宫的中央位置,外墙为红色。宫殿采用了曼陀罗布局,围绕着历代达赖的灵塔殿建造了许多经堂、佛殿,从而与白宫连为一体。
红宫最主要的建筑是历代达赖喇嘛的灵塔殿,共有五座,分别是五世、七世、八世、九世和十三世。各殿形制相同,但规模不等。其中最大五世达赖灵塔殿(藏林静吉)殿高三层,由十六根大方柱支撑,中央安放五世达赖灵塔,两侧分别是十世和十二世达赖的灵塔。五世达赖灵塔殿的享堂西大殿(措钦鲁,亦名司西平措)是红宫中最大的殿堂,高6米多,面积达725.7平方米。殿内悬挂乾隆帝亲书的“涌莲初地”匾额,下置达赖宝座。整个殿堂雕梁画栋,有壁画698幅,内容多与五世达赖的生平有关。在红宫的西部是十三世达赖灵塔殿(格来顿觉),建于1936年,是布达拉宫最晚的建筑。其规模之大也可与五世达赖灵塔殿相媲美,殿内除了灵塔,还供奉着一尊银造的十三世达赖像和一座用20万颗珍珠、珊瑚珠编成的法物“曼扎”。
红宫中的法王殿(曲结哲布)和圣者殿(帕巴拉康)相传都是吐蕃时期遗留下来的建筑。法王殿正处在布达拉宫的中央位置,它的下面就是玛布日山的山尖。据说这里曾经是松赞干布的静修之所,现供奉着松赞干布、赤尊公主、文成公主以及大臣们的塑像。圣者殿供奉松赞干布的主尊佛——一尊由檀香木天然形成的观世音菩萨像。
红宫的屋顶平台上布满各灵塔殿的金顶,全部是单檐歇山式,以木制斗拱承托外檐,上覆鎏金铜瓦。顶端立一大二小的三座宝塔,金光灿灿,煞是耀眼。屋顶外围的女墙用一种深紫红色的灌木垒砌而成,外缀各种金饰,墙顶立有巨大的鎏金宝幢和红色经幡,体现出强烈的藏式风格。
红宫中的另外一些宫殿也很重要。三界兴盛殿(萨松朗杰)是红宫最高的殿堂,藏有大量经书和清朝皇帝的画像。坛城殿(洛拉康)有三个巨大的铜制坛城(曼陀罗),供奉密宗三佛。持明殿(仁增拉康)主供密宗宁玛派祖师莲花生及其化身像。世系殿(仲热拉康)供金质的释迦牟尼十二岁像和银质五世达赖像,十世达赖的灵塔也在此殿。
 
NI Stupa-tomb chapels 灵塔
 
In the Potala Palace, there are eight stupa-tomb chapels (where the relics of the Fifth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, and the Thirteenth Dalai Lamas are preserved. The stupa-tomb of the first Dalai Lama, known as a silver stupa, is situated in Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse; and the silver stupa-tomb of Dalai Lama II, III, IV are carefully placed in Dreprung Monastery in Lhasa. The stupa-tomb of Dalai Lama XIII, is now in another Palace which is also a part of the Potala Palace. Among the seven stupa-tombs in the Potala Palace, the stupa-tomb of Dalai Lama V, which was built in 1691, are known as the earliest and largest one. Records say that it is made of sandalwood, wrapped in gold foil and decorated with thousands of diamonds, pearls, agates and others gems. The stupa, with a height of 14.86 meters (49 feet), spends more than 3,700 kilograms of gold. 在布达拉宫丰富的藏品中,最重要的是安放历代达赖喇嘛遗体的灵塔。从五世到十三世,除了被革除教职的六世外,其余八位都建造了奢华的灵塔。这些灵塔大小有别,但形式相同,均由塔顶、塔瓶和塔座组成。塔顶一般十三阶,顶端镶以日月和火焰轮。塔瓶存放遗体,分成内外两间。外间设佛龛,供千手千眼观音像,内间一床一桌,床上安放达赖尸棺,书桌上放置达赖生前用过的一套法器和文房用品。所有灵塔都以金皮包裹、宝玉镶嵌,显得金碧辉煌。其中五世达赖的灵塔高达14.85米,当时为建造它,共花费白银104万两,并用去了11万两黄金和15000多颗珍珠、玛瑙、宝石等。十三世达赖的灵塔也高达14米,用去了1.9万两黄金。
   
   
 
Delicately designed, the lively patterns on the stupa-tombs look amazing and attractive. Mainly decorated with amber, pearl, coral, agate, diamond and other precious stones, the surfaces add more value to the whole stupa-tombs. Apart from the patterns, precious things housed in the stupas also make it more and more valuable. There are, a large number of cultural relics, the stupa of Sakyamuni and a thumb from figure of him, a piece of posthumous decree of king Songtsan gambo, a portrait embroidered by Princess wencheng, things left by the previous high-rank monks and so on. According to the Tibetan custom, the mummified and perfumed bodies of Dalai lamas and Panchen Lamas are well kept in stupas, which is known as Stupa Funeral.精妙的设计,使得这些灵塔有着惊人的吸引力。灵塔的表面是用琥珀,珍珠,珊瑚,玛瑙还有其他珍贵的宝石来装饰的,因此显得异常的珍贵。除了灵塔本身的价值,灵塔内部珍藏的宝物也是很珍贵的东西。里面有许多的历史文物,释迦摩尼舍利塔里的指骨舍利,松赞干布颁布的法令,文成公主的绣像,还有以前一些高僧留下的东西等等。根据西藏传统,达赖喇嘛和班禅喇嘛的尸体先涂抹盐,风干后涂抹香料,放进塔内,这就是所谓的塔葬。
 
Around the stupa-tomb chapel of the Fifth Dalai Lama, there are also some chapels in which thousands of precious books and numerous scriptures written in Chinese, Manchu and Mongolian are carefully kept. In addition, many hand-writing copies and printed books about history, Medicine, culture, Buddhism and so on are also well kept there. It is recorded that the total number of those books is over 200.000.在五世达赖喇嘛的灵塔周围,有许多很珍贵的中文书籍和经文,被满族人和蒙古族人保存很好。另外,还有许多手抄本和印刷本书籍的,历史类,医学类,文化类,佛教类还有其他种类的书籍。书籍的总数超过200,000本。
 
The thirteenth Dalai Lama’s stupa chapel is the hall where the stupa of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama (1876-1933) is housed. People started to build his stupa after his death in the fall of 1933, so it's the latest building in Potala Palace. Taking three years, the stupa is comparable with the Great Fifth's stupa. It is 14 meters (46 feet) in height, which is only 0.86 metres lower than the Fifth Dalai Lama’s. Made of a large amount of silver, covered with about 600 kilograms of gold and studded with lots of coral, amber, agate, diamond and other precious jewelries, the stupa is ten times as valuable as that of the Fifth Dalai Lama’s. In front of the stupa, there is a mandala made of more than 200,000 pearls and 40.000 other gems. Murals in the hall tell important events in his life, including his visit with Emperor Guangxu. The precious complete volumes of Kanjur have also been preserved in the chapel.十三世灵塔内是十三世达赖喇嘛的法身。十三世达赖灵塔殿,藏语称“格来顿觉”,意为善德圆满,基址原为僧舍,当时拆除原有建筑修建塔殿,面积435平方米,高14.85米。十三世达赖喇嘛灵塔紧贴北墙,塔高12.88米,是布达拉宫最高的灵塔之一,从塔座至塔顶占三层空间。塔殿前厅有十三世达赖坐像一尊,像前有一座由二十余万颗珍珠串成的珍珠曼扎(曼陀罗)。灵塔前的供案卜有珍贵的瓷器、珐琅、珠玉等祭器饰物。殿堂内挂满织锦经幡挂幛。在三层的享堂内,四壁满绘壁画,用连环画的形式,记录了十三世达赖喇嘛的生平和传记。其中以清光绪三十四年(公元1908年)十三世达赖喇嘛赴京觐见光绪皇帝和慈禧太后以及游览京城的情景,最有历史价值。
 
NII Legend of Potala Palace布达拉宫的传奇
 
The Potala Palace is said to have been built in the 7th century for Princess Wencheng, a very famous princess in history of China. It was King Songtsan Gambo who had made the Potala Palace built. It was said that he had been a wise, handsome and brave man, with a strong body, a charming figure and heavy features.据说,布达拉宫建于七世纪,是松赞干布为了中国历史上非常有名的文成公主而建的。松赞干布是一位非常有才干,明智,英俊,勇敢,强壮的男人,他非常的迷人。
 
In 629, the third year of Emperor Li Shimin's reign, a coup d'etat took place in. Its 31st tsampo, or King, was assassinated by his political opponent. The kingdom was seized with a movement of separatism championed by the aristocrats bent on returning to the old system. Songtsan Gambo became the 32nd tsampo. Though he was only thirteen at the time, he had already been a resourceful statesman. Calmly exploiting his diplomatic and military clout, he crushed the separatist movement, and in three years Tubo became an integrated kingdom again. Then he crossed the Yalutsangbo River and established the capital at Lhasa. Songtsan Gambo has since become a national hero of the Tibetans and worshiped like the revered Lamas.公元629年,李世民在位的第三年, 吐蕃发生了政变。三十一世赞普被他的政治对手给暗杀了。松赞干布成了第三十二个赞普,尽管那时他才十三岁,但他已经成了一名足智多谋的政治家。他运用他的外交和军事能力,粉碎了分裂运动,并在三年内,成就了吐蕃王朝。他度过雅鲁藏布江,然后在拉萨建立了政权。松赞干布成了西藏的民族英雄,被人民供奉如喇嘛。
 
After the reunification, Songtsan Gambo concentrated on building Tubo into a powerful kingdom. One of his nation-building strategies was to inject new cultures into Tubo. To do so, he found it the most convenient way to establish matrimonial relationships between his royal family and those of his neighboring countries. After marrying a princess of Nepal, he turned his attention to Tang. A hero himself, he admired Emperor Taizong of Tang for his great talent and bold vision. He thought he, as well as his kingdom, could gain a lot by his marriage with a daughter of the Tang emperor. 统一之后,松赞干布致力于将吐蕃建成伟大的王朝。他的国家建设战略中的一项就是向吐蕃引进文化。为了完成这一目的,他发现最简单易行的方法就是与他的邻国进行通婚政策。在于尼泊尔的一位公主完婚后,他又将注意力转向了大唐。作为一位英雄,他佩服唐太宗的雄才大略,他认为,他以及他的王国可以通过与唐太宗的女儿的婚姻获得许多东西。
   
 
In 634, Songtsan Gambo dispatched an envoy named Gar Tongtsan to Chang'an, capital of the Tang Empire, to find out whether there was a chance for the Emperor Taizong of Tang to marry off one of his daughters to him. But the Emperor refused his proposal considering the political and military reasons and his state of marriage.
公元634年,松赞干布派了一名使者去了唐朝的都城长安,看是否有机会可以与唐太宗的一位女儿成婚。但唐太宗考虑到松赞干布的军事和政治因素,以及他的婚姻状况,就拒绝了他。

As king of Tubo, Songtsan Gambo had married three Tibetan girls and the Nepalese princess Khir-btsun before he made his marriage proposal to Tang Dynasty. None of the three Tibetan wives was given the title of Queen but the Nepalese Princess, who was the daughter of Amsuvarman (king of Nepal). 作为吐蕃王国的国王,在于唐朝通婚之前,松赞干布已经于三位西藏姑娘和尼泊尔的尺尊公主成了婚,他的三位西藏妻子都没有王后的称号,但是另一位却是一位尼泊尔的公主。
Of course the political and military reasons were most likely the main obstacles that Emperor Taizong turned down Songtsan Gambo’s marriage proposal. The historical record tells that it was because of the King of another country who had said something bad of Songtsan Gambo to Emperor Taizong. Hearing of the envoy’s report, Songtsan Gambo got very angry and decided to fight for his country and for his own sake. Successfully, he defeated the country whose king had prevented him from marrying a princess of Tang emperor in a short time. Then, to show Tubo’s great military power to Emperor Taizong of Tang, and to extend territory of his country, Songtsan Gambo had continuously launched offensives against his neighboring countries and won great victories until his successes threatened to the security of the Central Plains. Realizing that he should take the talented young man seriously, Emperor Taizong led an army troop of 50.000 soldiers personally against Songtsan Gambo’s 20.000 soldiers and defeated them. 当然,政治和军事因素是唐太宗拒绝松赞干布的主要原因,据历史记载,唐太宗拒绝他的另一个原因是其他一个国家的国王在唐太宗的面前说了松赞干布的话坏。听了使者的禀告,松赞干布决定为了他的王国和他自己,与唐朝开始交战。很快,他打败了这个拒绝让公主与他成婚的国家。显示了自己强大的军事力量并且开始扩张土地的吐蕃王朝开始不断的发起攻势,直到威胁到中原的安全。意识到这个年轻人的才干后,唐太宗亲自率领50,000士兵与松赞干布的20,000士兵作战,然后打败了他们。
   
 
Still wishing that he could marry a princess of imperial Tang, and the Princess would introduce the advanced culture and production technologies from the Central Plains to strengthen Tubo, Songtsan Gambo sent his Prime Minister Lu Tongtsan to Chang’an to officially propose the matrimonial relationship to Emperor Taizong. Songtsan Gambo trusted Lu Tongtsan not only because he was a resourceful military leader who had played a great role in the reunification of Tubo, but also because he was a steadfast champion of his policy to establish friendly relationships with neighboring countries. 仍然希望可以与唐朝公主结婚,并且可以因此从中原引进先进的文化和生产技术去强大吐蕃,松赞干布派了一位能说会道的使臣禄东赞向唐太宗正式提出婚姻要求。松赞干布信任禄东赞,不仅是因为他是一个足智多谋的军事领导者,他在统一吐蕃的过程中发挥了重要作用,而且因为他是自己与邻国建立友好关系的政策的忠实拥护者。
 
It was a wintry day. Lu Tongtsan and his hundred-strong entourage arrived in Chang'an with 5,000 taels of gold and several hundred items of treasure. Emperor Taizong of Tang received them in his richly ornamented palace. There, Lu Tongtsan presented Songtsan Gambo’s letter of proposal along with the gifts. Though impressed with Lu Tongtsan’s elegant manner, Emperor Taizong refrained from acceding to Songtsan Gambo's proposal right away. He put Lu Tongtsan and his men up in the royal hotel together with a dozen envoys and their subordinates who had come for the same purposes from other countries. The emperor needed to find a tactical way to decline them so that he could marry the princess off to Lu Tongtsan's monarch Songtsan Gambo. Having a contest among them seemed to be a good idea.寒冬季节,禄东赞一行一百多人带着五百两黄金和数百件宝物来到长安。唐太宗在他装饰华丽的宫殿接待了他,在那里,禄东赞将装有松赞干布建议的信与宝物一起交给了唐太宗。虽然禄东赞优雅的举止给唐太宗留下了深刻的印象,唐太宗依然拒绝了松赞干布的建议。他把禄东赞和其他国家的抱有相同目的的使节放在了一起。皇帝需要一个绝妙的方法可以使公主能够与禄东赞的君主成婚。其中一个比赛的提议似乎是个不错的建议。
 
Even though Emperor Taizong had anticipated who the winner would be, he was still amazed at Lu Tongtsan's intelligence. In 641, Emperor Taizong betrothed Princess Wencheng to Songtsan Gambo and granted the title of "Right-Wing General" to the Tubo envoy Lu Tongtsan, making him the first Tubo man to receive an honorific title from the central government. Later, Princess Jincheng was married off in Tubo. Since then, the Tubo Kingdom established "uncle-nephew" relations with the Tang Dynasty, which were accepted by tsampos of future generations.尽管太宗已经预定了谁是胜利者,但是禄东赞的聪明才智还是令太宗大吃一惊。公元641年,太宗将文成公主嫁给松赞干布,并册封禄东赞为“右翼将军”,使他成为来自中央册封的第一个吐蕃男子。后来,文成公主就嫁去了吐蕃。自此,吐蕃王朝与唐朝建立了“叔侄”关系,也被后来的赞普所采纳。
 
 
 

One day Potala palace private tour布达拉宫包车一日游
Tour Code: LST01

Sightseeing: Potala palace, Jokhang temple  景点:布达拉宫,大昭寺
 
 
 
 
 
Detail Itinerary: 行程:
 
Your private vehicle and English speaking tour guide will pick you up from your hotel at 9:00am.Drive to Potala palace,symbolizes Tibetan Buddhism and its central role in the traditional administration of Tibet. The Potala Palace, built by Songtsan Gambo on the Potala Hill (Red Hill), is an extremely magnificent castle, the only example in ancient China and a masterpiece rare even in world architectural history.我们的车和司机早上9:00酒店接您。乘车去布达拉宫,西藏佛教的象征,西藏传统管理的核心地点。布达拉宫是松赞干布建的,位于布达拉宫山(红山),是一座非常宏伟的城堡,是中国历史上甚至世界建筑领域内的经典之作。
 
This afternoon, visit Jokhang temple, it is the first built during the period of Sontsan Gambo in the 7th century, it is also the first monastery for most pilgrims to visit as it is widely recognized as the spiritual center of Tibetan Buddhism.  Surrounding the Jokhang temple is Barkhor Bazaar,you can find many local product at there.下午,参观大昭寺,它是七世纪松赞干布时期的第一座建筑,对于大多数朝圣者来说,它是第一个圣寺,现在它也被认为是藏传佛教的中心。大昭寺周围的八廊街,有许多的当地特产。
 
Quotation in USD per person

 
2PAX
3PAX
4PAX
5PAX
6PAX
7PAX
8PAX
Quotation
108
100
95
89
88
86
83

Include:包含:
1)      Enterance fees liseted on the itinerary
2)      Experienced driver and English speaking tour guide
3)      Private car/van with air-conditioner
4)      Typical Chinese lunch
5)      Pick-up from and transfer back to your hotel
1)    计划内景点门票
2)    优秀司机和英语导游
3)    带空调的车
4)    标准中餐
5)    至酒店的来回车程
 
Exclude: Hotel expense, Personal expense, Gratuities to guides and drivers
不包含: 酒店费用,个人花费,司机,导游的小费
Remark: The above private tour is tailored for you and your friends exclusively. You and your friends will enjoy Private car, driver and tour guide. If it can not match with your idea, just feel free to contact us.
备注:上述包车游是专为您和您的朋友而设计的。您和您的朋友将会很享受我们提供的车,司机和导游。如果不满意,请您随时与我们取得联系。
Related Link:      Tibet           >>>More Tibet Tour
 
 
 
 

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