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Shao Lin Temple少林寺
 
少林寺
The Shaolin order dates to about 540 A.D., when an Indian Buddhist priest named Bodhidharma (Tamo in Chinese), traveled to China to see the Emperor. At that time, the Emperor had started local Buddhist monks translating Buddhist texts from Sanskrit to Chinese. The intent was to allow the general populace the ability to practice this religion.more>>>Shao Lin Temple
 
少林寺可以追溯至公元540年,当印度一个叫达摩的和尚来中国拜访中国皇帝的时候。那时,皇帝已经让当地的佛教僧侣开始翻译咒语中的中文,这样做的目的是让广大民众又能力去实践这一宗教。
 
This was a noble project, but when the Emperor believed this to be his path to Nirvana, Tamo disagreed. Tamo's view on Buddhism was that you could not achieve your goal just through good actions performed by others in your name. At this point the Emperor and Tamo parted ways and Tamo traveled to the nearby Buddhist temple to meet with the monks who were translating these Buddhist texts.
 
这是一个崇高的计划,但是当皇帝相信这个将成为他的路径潘涅的时候,达摩却不同意。达摩的佛教观点是仅仅通过以他人的名义去证实这个好的行动是不能够成就目标的。爱此观点上,皇帝和达摩分道扬镳,达摩开始去寻找附近的佛教寺庙并会见翻译佛教经文的僧侣。
 
The temple had been built years before in the remains of a forest that had been cleared or burned down. At the time of the building of the temple, the emperor's gardeners had also planted new trees. Thus the temple was named "young (or new) forest", (Shaolin in Mandarin, Sil Lum in Cantonese).   >>>  Pagoda Forest at Lingyan Temple
 
在这个已经被烧毁和清除的森林之前,这个寺庙已经建造了很多年了。在建造这个寺庙的时候,皇帝的园丁在这里种了许多树,故该寺庙被命名为“少林”。
 
When Tamo arrived at the temple, he was refused admittance, probably being thought of as an upstart or foreign meddler by the head abbot (Fang Chang). Rejected by the monks, Tamo went to a nearby cave and meditated until the monks recognized his religious prowess and admitted him. Legend has it that he bored a hole through one side of the cave with his constant gaze; in fact, the accomplishment that earned his recognition is lost to history.
当达摩到达这个寺庙的时候,他被拒绝进入,可能是他被方丈认为是一个暴发户或是国外的爱管闲事的人,被和尚拒绝了。在和尚没有认识到他是宗教的并接受他之前,他一直在附近的一个山洞打坐。
 
When Tamo joined the monks, he observed that they were not in good physical condition. Most of their routine paralleled that of the Irish monks of the Middle Ages, who spent hours each day hunched over tables where they transcribed handwritten texts. Consequently, the Shaolin monks lacked the physical and mental stamina needed to perform even the most basic of Buddhist meditation practices. Tamo countered this weakness by teaching them moving exercises, designed to both enhance chi flow and build strength. These sets, modified from Indian yogas (mainly hatha, and raja) were based on the movements of the 18 main animals in Indo-Chinese iconography (e.g., tiger, deer, leopard, cobra, snake, dragon, etc.), were the beginnings of Shaolin Kung Fu.当达摩成为僧侣后,他发现他们的健康状况不是很好,他们中的大多数都像中年纪的爱尔兰僧侣,他们每天都要花费几个小时在弯腰上。所以,他们缺乏身体和精神耐力,需要去证实大多数的佛教冥想实践。达摩通过教授他们移动联系来抵抗疾病。目的在于提高他们的精神和身体的健康程度。这些都是来自印度的瑜伽,他是根据动物的活动意向,少林功夫就开始于这个。
 
It is hard to say just when the exercises became "martial arts". The Shaolin temple was in a secluded area where bandits would have traveled and wild animals were an occasional problem, so the martial side of the temple probably started out to fulfill self-defense needs. After a while, these movements were codified into a system of self-defense.很难说这些练习会成为武术,少林寺在一个偏僻的地区里,是土匪和野生动物时常出现的地方,所以武庙旁边都得要履行自卫的需要。过了一段时间,这些动作就被编纂进了自我防御的系统里了。
 
As time went on, this Buddhist sect became more and more distinct because of the martial arts being studied. This is not to say that Tamo "invented" martial arts. Martial arts had existed in China for centuries. But within confines of the temple, it was possible to develop and codify these martial arts into the new and different styles that would become distinctly Shaolin. One of the problems faced by many western historians is the supposed contraindication of Buddhist principles of non-violence coupled with Shaolin's legendary martial skills. In fact, the Shaolin practitioner is never an attacker, nor does he or she dispatch the most devastating defenses in any situation. Rather, the study of kung fu leads to better understanding of violence, and consequently how to avoid conflict. Failing that, a Buddhist who refuses to accept an offering of violence (i.e., and attack) merely returns it to the sender. Initially, the kung fu expert may choose to parry an attack, but if an assailant is both skilled and determined to cause harm, a more definitive and concluding solution may be required, from a joint-lock hold to a knockout, to death. The more sophisticated and violent an assault, the more devastating the return of the attack to the attacker. Buddhists are not, therefore, hurting anyone; they merely refuse delivery of intended harm.more>>>Shao Lin Temple
 
时光飞逝,由于武术开始被学习,佛教流派开始越来越多的分支。这并不是说是达摩发明了武术,武术在中国已经存在了几百年。但在寺庙的范围内,很有可能把武术发展或编纂到新的或不同风格的少林寺中去。许多西方历史学家现在所面临的问题之一是少林传奇的武术技巧和暴力佛教原则应该禁忌。事实上,少林医生从来都不是攻击者,他或她也不会在任何情况下派遣最具破坏力的抗辩。确切的说,研究功夫可以更好的了解暴力,因此可以更好的避免。否则,佛教就可以拒绝接受,可以反退给发送者。起初,功夫专家可能会选择防守的攻击,但是一个攻击者如果有技术和决心发起攻击可能会带来伤害,一个更加明确的结论和解决方案可能联合起来以至于死亡,越是复杂的暴力殴打,对攻击者或许是越有毁灭性的攻击。佛教徒却不是,因此,伤害任何一个人,他们至少拒绝将其伤害。
 
The Shaolin philosophy is one that started from Buddhism and later adopted many Taoist principles to become a new sect. Thus even though a temple may have been Taoist or Buddhist at first, once it became Shaolin, it was a member of a new order, 少林哲学是起源于佛教,后来融入了许多道教到达规则,成为一个新的的教派。因此,即使是一个寺庙也可能已经成为了道教或佛教。起初,一旦成为少林寺的一员,你就是一个遵守秩序的成员。
 
Other temples sprung from Henan. This happened because the original temple would suffer repeated attacks and periods of inactivity as the reigning Imperial and regional leaders feared the martial powers of the not-always unaligned monks. Refugee Shaolin practitioners would leave the temple to teach privately (in Pai) or at other Buddhist or Taoist temples. In rare cases, a new Shaolin Temple would be erected (Fukien, Kwangtung) or converted from a pre-existing temple (Wu-Tang, O Mei Shan). 其他的寺庙兴起于河南,这是由于原来的寺庙屡遭袭击和帝国时期的无所作为,寺里的领导者害怕他们对僧侣动用武力,嵩山少林寺被废弃,僧侣们被纷纷遣送回家。在如此罕见的情况下,一个新的少林寺将要建成或是从一个其他的寺庙(武当、峨眉山)转变而来。
 
The Boxer rebellion in 1901 was the beginning of the end of the Shaolin temples. Prior to that, China had been occupied by Western and Japanese governments and business interests. The British had turned the Imperial family into an impotent puppet regime largely through the import and sales of opium and the general drug-devastation inflicted upon the poor population. This lead to the incursion of other European powers, including Russia, France and Holland, and later the Japanese and Americans. By the late 1800s, China was effectively divided into national zones, each controlled by one of the outside powers (similar to post World War II Berlin, on a hugely larger scale). The long standing animosities between China and Japan worsened, and extended to include all other "foreign devils" as well. Coupled with the now almost universal disdain by the Chinese for their Empress, a Nationalist movement with nation-wide grass-roots support was born. Among Though their initial assaults on the military powers of the occupation governments were not entirely successful (many believed in Taoist magical spells that would make them impervious to gunfire), their temporary defeat would lead to a more modern reformation that included adopting modern military weapons and tactics.在1901年义和团开始叛乱这个也意味着寺庙的消亡即将开始。在此之前,中国已经占领了西欧和日本的政府和商业利益。英国变成了一个无能的傀儡政权主要是通过进口和销售鸦片和一般药物摧残人民,贫困人口造就皇族。这与其他欧洲国家,包括俄罗斯,法国和荷兰的入侵,后来又有日本人和美国人。 1800年代末期,中国存在着巨大规模的分歧(类似外部势力控制战后一分为二的柏林。中国和日本之间长期的仇恨更加恶化,并扩展到也包括所有其他的“洋鬼子” 。一个全国性的基层支持民族主义运动中目前几乎普遍诞生了。虽然对政府的军事占领的权力,最初的攻击并不完全成功(在道教法术相信会令他们不受炮火)许多人来说,他们暂时的失败将导致一个更现代化的改革,其中包括采用现代化的军事武器和战术
 
   
 
The withdrawal of western forces was prolonged over many years, and by the end of World War I saw China in an almost feudal state of civil war. Not only were national troops fighting loyalists, but both sides had to fight the Japanese (who still held much of the northern Manchurian region of China) as well as many powerful, regional warlords. Many parts of China were virtually anarchies, but by 1931 almost all non-Asian occupants had been successfully driven out (with the interesting exception, in the late 1930s, of the volunteer American airmen known as The Flying Tigers, who helped repel Japanese forces prior to World War II), and the major combatants within China were the Nationalists and the Communists. Both sides displayed the typical jingoistic attitudes of forces in mindless warfare--if you aren't with us, you are against us. Neutrality meant nothing except the possibility of a later enemy. Consequently, Shaolin and other monks were routinely murdered by soldiers from both sides. One result of this program of murder was the exodus of many monks into the hills, or abroad, with the hope that Shaolin knowledge might survive even if the temples themselves did not.more>>>Shao Lin Temple
 
西方军队的撤出延长了许多年,由于第一次世界大战结束时,我看到了整天处于内战的封建中的中国。但双方都攻打日本(仍占据中国东北北部的大部分地区),以及许多强大的,区域的军阀。中国的许多地方几乎被占领,但到1931年几乎所有非亚洲居民已成功驱动了(有趣的例外,在20世纪30年代末的美国飞行员作为飞虎队,第二次世界大战帮助击退日军事先已知的志愿者),并在中国主要的战斗是国民党和共产党。双方都表现出典型的愚蠢战争势力态度 - 如果你对我们不要,你反对我们。中立意味着除外以后没有任何敌人的可能性。因此,少林僧人经常被这些士兵从两侧杀害。这方面的一个谋杀计划的结果是,许多僧侣到山上,或在国外流亡,希望少林可以继续存在纵使没有寺庙。
 
The temples were unfortunate victims of war in a land that had abandoned its historical practice of respecting posterity and ancestors. All were ransacked and looted by various armed groups. O Mei Shan Temple ("Great White Mountain"), in Szechuan Province, was situated on a mountain top and deemed by Chinese officers to be a fitting target for artillery practice. It was shelled in turn by Nationalist and Communist armies. In a fitting twist of fate, this one-time site of medical  was rebuilt by the Communists in the mid 1970s, and now stands as the National Park and Research Headquarters for the panda preserve.寺庙死是在这个陆地上的战争中一个的受害者,遗弃了尊敬的祖先的历史实践。所有的东西被各种各样的军队洗劫一空。四川省峨眉山少林寺,位于峨眉山顶上,在古代被中国政府视为适合军事训练的地方,在那时候被国民党和共产党遭受重击。在一个合适的时期,这个地方出现了转机,在1970年中期,共产党在这里建立了一次性的医疗站。现在国家公园和熊猫研究总部就设在那里。
 
   
 
There are various stories coming out of China today referring to the history of Shaolin, particularly over the past 300 years. However, many of these stories are suspect (compare Chinese accounts of Tiananmen Square with CNN news coverage), with the more commonly "authenticated" versions coming from government records. The fact that Chinese authorities outlawed Shaolin and martial arts practices makes any story about their history from such sources suspect. The prevalent wu-shu styles originated as a result of a compromise between the post-World War II governments and the national need and history of having a martial arts tradition. Wu-Shu, however, was not designed as a martial art (strictly illegal), and claims to the contrary date back only a decade or so, following on the popularity of Kung Fu.   >>>  Shaolin Kungfu
 
有许多来自中国古代的历史都涉及到了少林,特别是过去300年。然而,许多故事都被怀疑,有许多证据都来自中国政府的版本记录.事实上,中国当局取缔了少林和武术使得有关 于这些故事的历史的来源有点可疑,武术的流行来源于我们意识到二战期间某些政府和国家对传统武术的需求和武术所真正具有的历史价值。然而武术不是作为一个武术来讲的,与此相反的是要追溯到十年以前,以及功夫的知名度。
 
 
 
 
 
DENGFENG, Henan - The home of Chinese kungfu and Zen Buddhism, China's Shaolin Temple is now part of humanity's cultural heritage.

Nestled in the Mount Songshan of Central China's Henan province, the historic architectural complex including the Shaolin Temple was added on Sunday to the UNESCO World Heritage List during a meeting of the World Heritage Committee in Brasilia, Brazil.

The new addition pushed China's world heritage sites to 39, including 28 cultural heritage sites, seven natural heritage sites and four cultural and natural heritage sites.

UNESCO said the historical architecture complex stands out for its great aesthetic beauty and its profound cultural connotations.

The complex is composed of 11 traditional structures, including the Shaolin Temple, the Observatory, Songyang Academy, Taishi Towers and Zhongyue Temple.

With a history of more than 2,000 years, these monuments feature various architectural styles brimming with ancient Chinese culture.

They provide the world with a glimpse into ancient Chinese religion, philosophy, customs and scientific development, said Yang Huancheng, an expert of ancient architecture.

Shaolin Temple's abbot Shi Yongxin said the UNESCO decision is a privilege, but it also adds pressure.

"For the monks, living in a world-recognized heritage site is a wonderful experience, but at the same time, our responsibility to protect the temple becomes even graver," he said.

 
China Kungfu Tour
 
    Kung Fu, also known as Wushu, is the generic name for any Martial Art that comes from China, both "internal" and "external," "bare-handed"and "with weapons","traditional" and "contemporary".
    There are 4 basic skills in Chinese Kung Fu --- kicking, punching, wrestling and seizing-finishing (Qin-na in Chinese). Advanced skills are involved in pressure points, arts of war as well as various weapons.
    Kung Fu is the most popularly known of all the martial arts. It employs kicks, strikes, throws, body turns, dodges, holds, crouches and starts, leaps and falls, handsprings, somersaults and etc. These movements include more techniques involving the open hand, such as claws and rips, than those used in Karate. As a very ancient form of martial arts, Kung Fu also has innumerable styles and sub styles. It includes the legendary Shaolin style of fighting, which was named after a 6th century monastery in Henan province, China.
    Kung Fu is a great exercise for discipline, encouragement, concentration, flexibility, balance as well as self-defense. Kung Fu has greatly benefitted the physical well-being of the people who practice it.
 
 
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