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Great Wall Brief Introduction
 
长城的简要介绍
 
The Great Wall of China, one of the greatest wonders of the world, was enlisted in the World Heritage by UNESCO in 1987  中国长城是世界奇观之一,1987年被教科文组织宣布为世界遗产。
 
The Great Wall of China, also known as the Great Wall of 10,000, is an ancient Chinese fortification built from the end of the 14th century until the beginning of the 17th century, during the Ming Dynasty, in order to protect China from raids by the Mongols and Turkic tribes. It was preceded by several walls built since the 3rd century BC against the raids of nomadic tribes coming from areas now in modern day Mongolia and Manchuria.The Wall stretches over a formidable 6,350 km (3,946 miles), from Shanhai Pass on the Bohai Gulf in the east, at the limit between China proper and Manchuria, to Lop Nur in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Great Wall  Learnmore...
中国长城也被称为万里长城,它是中国古代的设防建筑,从14世纪末期一直修筑至17世纪初期,在明朝它是用来抵御蒙古和突厥部落的侵袭的。从公元前3世纪就开始筑造的一些墙是为了抵御现在的蒙古和满族游牧民族的侵略。长城蜿蜒6350千米,从东部渤海湾的山海关至新疆维吾尔自治区的罗布泊。
The first major wall was built during the reign of the First Emperor, the main emperor of the short-lived Qin dynasty. This wall was not constructed as a single endeavor, but rather was created by the joining of several regional walls built by the Warring States. It was located much further north than the current Great Wall, and very little remains of it. A defensive wall on the northern border was built and maintained by several dynasties at different times in Chinese history. The Great Wall that can still be seen today was built during the Ming Dynasty, on a much larger scale and with longer lasting materials (solid stone used for the sides and the top of the Wall) than any wall that had been built before. The primary purpose of the wall was not to keep out people, who could scale the wall, but to insure that semi-nomadic people on the outside of the wall could not cross with their horses or return easily with stolen property. 长城第一次大的修建是在中国第一个皇帝在位期间,短命的秦朝的最重要的皇帝。当时并不是单一建造,而是讲很多城墙连接起来。当时的长城位置比现在更靠北,也只留下了小小一部分。中国历史上,北部边境的防御墙曾多次被修筑和巩固保护。我们今天看到的长城是明代时候修筑的,它比之前其他的城桓规模更大,使用的材料保持更持久(墙的两侧和顶部是用坚固的石头砌成的)。长城最早建起来的目的不是为了抵御人民,而是为了不让那些长城以外的半游牧民族人轻易地骑马闯过来或者带走从中原抢走的东西。
There have been four major walls:主要有四种长城:
208 BC (the Qin Dynasty) 公元前208年(秦朝)
1st century BC (the Han Dynasty) 公元1世纪(汉朝)
1138 - 1198 (the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period) 1138年至1198年(五代十国时期)
1368-1620 (from Hongwu Emperor until Wanli Emperor of the Ming Dynasty) 1368年至1620年(清朝洪武年间至万历年间) Great Wall  Learnmore...

Thereafter, the Great Wall was restored and lengthened time and time again. The later walls were not a long and frail wall but were complete fortifications with more annexes such as: castles, watch towers and beacon towers. In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), large-scale extensions generated the 'Great Wall of Ming', the ever longest wall in the history of China. The wall that we see today is primarily the result of a restoration that took place during the Ming Dynasty. However, some sections of the Great Wall fell into ruins.此后,长城被加固和延长很多次。后来的长城不是又长又脆弱的了,而是一道拥有很多附件的完整的防御工具,例如城堡,瞭望塔,烽火台等。明朝时,大规模扩展才有了“明长城”,中国历史上最长的长城。今天我们所看到的长城就是明朝时期修复和加固的长城。然而,长城的部分路段还是坍塌了。
 
Now, sections at
Shanhaiguan Pass, Badaling, Simatai, Mutianyu and Jiayuguan Pass have become celebrated tourist resorts. The Badaling Great Wall, a typical section of the Great Wall, is the most famous place in China and is always thronged with visitors coming from all over the world.Great Wall  Learnmore...

现在,山海关,八达岭,司马台,慕田峪,嘉峪关等部分已经成了著名的旅游胜地。八达岭长城,典型的长城段,不仅是中国最著名的地方,也吸引了无数海内外游客前来参观游览。

The Eight Great Wall Sites at Beijing 北京的八大长城

The eight sites of the Great Wall at Beijing, starting from the north-west clockwise, are Badaling, JuyongGuan and HuanghuaCheng, then Jiankou and Mutianyu in the north followed by Jinshanling, Gubeikou and Simatai to the north-east. A few desolated sites have been closed by the authorities to prevent further damage to the structures as well as injuries to tourists. The eight Great Wall sites in the Beijing area are described as below: 北京的八大长城,从西北方起,是八达岭,居庸关,黄花城,箭口,慕田峪,北边有金山岭,古北口,司马台。一些荒废的部分已被当地有关部门关闭了,为免进一步的破坏和游客受到伤害。这八处长城分别是:

Badaling Great Wall八达岭长城

Built in 1505AD, the Badaling Great Wall is known as one of the nine famous passes of the Great Wall and the outpost of the famous Juyongguan Pass. When used by the Chinese to protect their land, this part has had many guards to defend the capital city Beijing. Made of stone and bricks from the mountains, this section is 8meters high and 6 meters wide. It is generally rated as one of the best 40 tourist destinations of China. In the Badaling Great Wall Scenic Area, the China Great Wall Museum was built for those who want more information about the wall. More about the Great Wall at Badaling Beijing. 建于1505年,史称天下九塞之一,是居庸关的前哨。当长城被用来保护中国的土地时,这一段长城上已经有很多士兵是用来保护都城北京的。这段长城是由山上的石块和砖瓦建筑的,长城高8米,宽6米。被评为中国40个最佳旅游目的地之一。在八达岭长城风景区,那里有中国长城博物馆,是专门为了那些希望了解更多关于长城的知识的人建的。

Gubeikou Great Wall古北口长城

Gubeikou is an important strategic pass of the Great Wall, Gubeikou  (Old Northern Entrance), in Miyun county is 120 km northeast of Beijing  on a road that running northwards as a 20 km wide pass through the Yanshan Mountain Range. Located at Wohu (Lying Tiger) mountain, it was originally called Hubeikou . In 1368 Ming Dynasty general, Xu Da, rebuilt this section of the Great Wall. Gubeikou has seen famous battles and on its slope is a temple dedicated to Yang Ye (  00-986), a famous Song Dynasty general whose illustrious military family served the Song Emperors for four generations. Their stories of loyalty, bravery and romance were told in books, operas and  by balladeers and minstrels. The Great Wall at Gubeikou  古北口是长城上一个非常重要的战略关口,位于北京东北方向120公里处的密云县,穿过燕山山脉。坐落于卧龙山,古时候被称为虎北口。1369年,明朝将军,徐达,修复了长城的这一段。古北口具有很好的战略优势,在它的斜坡上有一个为纪念杨业而修建的寺庙,杨业,是宋代的一位军人家庭出身的将军,家族里四代都为朝廷效劳。他们忠诚,勇敢,浪漫的故事在许多书里,歌剧,戏曲,诗词中都有体现。

Simatai Great Wall司马台长城

Located in Miyun County, Beijing, 120 kilometers from Beijing downtown, Simatai Great Wall is renowned for its unique watchtowers, walls and the stunning natural beauty. This segment is very precipitous, still keeps the original form and known as the living Chinese Great Wall Museum. Wangjing Lou (Viewing Beijing Tower) is one of Simatai's famous watchtowers, 986 meters above sea level. Walking across a flying passage across between the cliffs, a courageous visitor can reach there. 司马台长城位于距北京市区120公里的密云县,它是因为独特的烽火台,墙体和优美的自然景观而出名的。这一段长城非常的陡峭,保留了长城原本的面貌,更像是真实的中国长城博物馆。望京楼是司马台长城上最有名的瞭望塔之一,海拔约986米。走过一段悬空的通道,勇敢的游客们就可以到这里了。

The Simatai Great Wall Scenic Area furnishes with all kinds of facilities such as the cable lifts, boats, swimming pools, fishing gears, shops, hotels, meeting rooms, encampment, and fields for barbecue. More details on Beijing Simatai Great Wall

司马台长城风景区提供了各种设备,包括缆车,船,游泳池,渔具,商店,酒店会议室,扎营区,烧烤场等。更多乐趣尽在北京司马台长城。

Jinshanling Great Wall金山岭长城

Jinshanling  (Gold Mountain), equally far as Simatai, is at Ruanping county some 150 km from Beijing and slightly to the west of Simatai. It was constructed during the Ming Dynasty from 1386 till 1389, and re-constructed in 1571 by Ming General Qi Jiguang. The Jinshan name apparently came from Genral Qi��s Jiangsu troops, who named two towers in honor of the smaller and greater Jinshan Islands in Zhenjiang City in Jiangsu. 金山岭长城,和司马台长城差不多一样远,距离北京市区150公里,略西于司马台长城。它是从明朝的1386年建到1389年,并由明朝将军戚继光于1571年重新修建。金山这个名字来源于戚继光的江苏军,他为江苏省镇江市的两座山起了大金山,小金山的名字。

The section, just over 10 km, is desolated with 150 battle plodd atforms in various shapes. Parts of the Jinshanling have "obstacle-walls", actually smaller upright stone slabs at right angles to the parapets to shield defenders when facing enemies who had already ascended the wall from below and were charging up the rampart. The side walls also have peepholes and shooting holes unique to Jinshanling.  After Badaling, it is the second most complete section of the Great Wall, despite having no recent repairs. From the eastern end of Jinshanling, one ascends the hundred meter long Stairway to Heaven to reach Wangjinglou (Tower for viewing the Capital) at Simatai.这一段,超过了十公里,经历了150多次规模不等的战役,显得很荒凉。金山岭上的部分地段有障墙,事实上,这些小的直立的石板,是在面临敌人时当做盾牌来用的,用来对付那些从下面登上墙来的敌人。金山岭侧面的墙壁上也有用来观望和射击的洞。除了八达岭,这一段是又一处即使近年没有修缮也比较完整的长城。从金山岭的最东端,走过大约百米的楼梯,可以到达司马台的望京楼。

Mutianyu Great Wall慕田峪长城

Mutianyu:located at Huairou county 79 km northeast of Beijing, joins the Juyong Pass in the west and Gubeikou in the east. Though only 20 km long it has 22 beacon towers and was opened to tourists on May Day in 1986, the second Great Wall site opened to tourists after Badaling. For those weary of walking they can have access to a cable car, with excellent views at the top. There was an earlier wall built 1400 years ago, but the present wall was built during the Ming Dynasty by General Xu Da under the order of Ming founder, Zhu Yuanzhang. It was further strengthened by General Qi Jiguang in 1568. In 1988, the Henkel company of Germany donated US$300,000 to restore Mutianyu.慕田峪长城位于北京东北79公里处的怀柔县,西面是嘉峪关,东面是古北口。虽然只有20公里长,但有22个烽火台,于1986年5月1日向游客开放,成为继八达岭之后,第二个向游客开放的长城段。如果走路觉得累,可以观赏着风景坐着缆车上去。原本这里有一千四百多年前的墙,但是现在遗存下来的是明朝将军徐达在明朝开国皇帝朱元璋的命令下修建的。后来又被戚继光将军再次加固。1988年,德国汉高公司捐赠了30万美元,以恢复保护慕田峪长城。

There is a tower complex of three inter-connected towers capable of withstanding a strong attack. The other interesting feature unique to Mutianyu is that the inner and outer parapets of the wall are crenellated with merlons for shots to be fired on both sides of the wall.  It was at Mutianyu that Cao Cao during the Three Kingdom Period defeated his opponent Yuan Shao. The Mutianyu section was later redesigned and strengthened by Ming General, Qi Jiguang, Military Superintendent of Jizhou.这里有一座比较复杂的塔,是三座塔相连以抗击强大的攻击。慕田峪长城,墙顶上两边都建有矮墙垛口,可两面拒敌,外侧还挖掘有挡马坑,使防御功能更加完善,这是一大特点。慕田峪长城墙顶的双侧都筑有长约5尺、厚1尺多、高2尺有余的垛口。三国时期,曹操就是在慕田峪打败他的对手袁绍。后来这里的长城被明朝将军戚继光重新修建和加固。

Jiankou Great Wall箭扣长城

Jiankou (Arrow Entrance) in Huairou County is 73 kilometres north of Beijing, connecting Mutianyu to the east and HuanghuaCheng to the west. This section was built during the Ming Dynasty in 1368. It is noticeable for its white rocks and the fact that the main section  are built on cliffs, with iron shoulder poles inserted between the cliffs. It has five gate towers and is considered very perilous, especially in winter when the wall is very scenic under white snow. Like HuanghuaCheng, this site is gaining popularity among the adventurous and the backpackers.箭扣长城位于北京市北方73公里处的怀柔县,东连慕田峪,西接黄花城。这段长城是在1368年明朝时期建造的。它的白色石头是很引人注目的,它的主体是建在悬崖边上,看起来颇有铜墙铁壁的架势。箭扣长城共有5个城楼,地势险恶,尤其在冬天时候,白雪包裹下的箭扣长城更是如此。就像黄花城,这里也深受冒险者和背包客的喜爱。

Other Famous Sections of the Great Wall长城其他著名的地段

Huangyaguan Pass Great Wall黄牙关长城

Placed in the endless tall mountains of Ji County, Tianjin, Huangyaguan Pass Great Wall was first built in 557 A.D. In the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), it was rebuilt by general Qijiguang (1528-1588) for anti the Japanese pirates. The portion of Huangyaguan Great Wall featured grandness, danger, uniqueness, and elegance. It has the well-designed watchtowers, different stylish turrets, and deep water passes.  This section of the Great Wall, hugging the Wangmaoding Mountain, has features different with those in Beijing, for it is a mix of high terrains and rivers with fortresses, water obstacles and traps. It hosts an international marathon on the Great Wall annually.Huangyaguan Pass Great Wall

黄崖关长城在蓟县北30公里的崇山峻岭之中,始建于公元556年,是世界文化遗产,国家首批4A级景区。黄崖关长城,东达河北省遵化县的马兰关,西接北京平谷的将军关,全长42公里,是中国古长城的一部分,有楼台66座,即敌楼52座,烽火台14座,是京东军事险要之地。明代名将戚继光任蓟镇总兵时,曾重新设计,包砖大修。自一九八四年九月至一九八七年九月军民协力共计修复边墙三千零二十五米,敌台二十座。为中国修复长城工程中最长的一处。1990年,黄崖关长城被选入“津门十景”。黄崖关城是明代蓟镇长城的重要关隘,也是县境内唯一的一座关城。关城东侧山崖的岩石多为黄褐色,每当夕阳映照,金碧辉煌,素有“晚照黄崖”之称,关城因此得名。

Shanhaiguan Pass Great Wall山海关长城

This Ming-dynasty-built Great Wall is lying in Qinghuangdao City, Hebei Province.Shanhaiguan Pass (Mountain and Sea Pass), at Qinhuangdao City of Hebei, about 300 km from Beijing, lies between the Yan Mountains in the north and the Bohai Sea in the south. It is 10km in width and commands an extremely strategic location that blocks the northern Manchuria tribes from advancing into eastern Hebei. The pass was restored in 1952. There is a temple for Lady Meng Jiangnu at Shanhaiguan. It is the eastern extremity of the wall. In fact, this section is a small city connected to the Great Wall and known as the "No. 1 Pass under Heaven". Shanghaiguan Great Wall is called the "Museum of the Construction of the Great Wall", because of its many ancient buildings including the grand city gates, towers, temples, and moat. 这座明朝修建的长城位于河北省的秦皇岛市,山海关长城位于北京以北300公里处的河北省青黄岛市,燕山以南,渤海之北。这里宽十公里,具有极其重要的战略地位,是为阻止满洲部落进入冀东。山海关是1952年恢复通关的。这里有山海关孟姜女庙。它是长城的最东端。事实上,这部分是链接长城的一个小城市,被称为“天下第一关”。山海关长城,被称为长城博物馆,因为这里有许多古建筑,包括宏伟的城门,塔,寺庙和护城河。

Laolongtou Great Wall老龙头长城

Some 5 km from Shanhaiguan is Laulongtou (Old Dragon Head), the end point of this section at the Bohai seacoast. It was built of stones by General Qi Jiguang but has fallen into ruins. A stone tablet at a secondary sea-pacifying fort read "Heavens with a view of Mountain and Sea",apparently with the personal calligraphy of Qi Jiguang.The Ten-thousand-Li Great Wall,symbol of China, 1ike a huge dragon runs across vast deserts, through boundless grasslands and over towering mountains and finally extends into the sea. The section which enters the sea is the starting point of the Great Wall in the east-Old Dragon Head. 在渤海海岸,距离山海关大约5千米处,是这段长城的终点,老龙头长城。它以前是戚继光将军命人用石头建成的,后来坍塌了。自澄海楼南下3层城台有一独耸的石碑,镌刻着戚继光将军书写的“天开海岳”四个苍劲有力的大字。万里长城是中国的象征,就像一条巨龙,由广袤的沙漠而来,穿越茫茫大草原,跨过绵延起伏的山脉,最终延伸至海。

Yanmenguan Pass Great Wall雁门关长城

Yanmenguan aka Goose Gate Pass, located in Dai County, Shanxi Province, which is a very important pass of the Great Wall for military in western China. And as an ancient war field, the Han, Hun, Turk, Uygur, Xianbi, Qiedan, Nuzhen and Mongolia had made their wars here. Now some famous ancient temples, shrine ruins of the Warring State Period (403-221B.C.), watchtowers, and beacon towers are still found on the Great Wall of Yanmenguan Pass.雁门关又名“西陉关”,位于山西省代县,是中国西部最重要的军事关卡。作为古战场,汉,匈奴,突厥,维吾尔,鲜卑,契丹,蒙古,女真都在这里发生过战争。现在,这里的古代寺庙,战国时期的祭祀台,岗楼,烽火台,都在雁门关的长城发现了。

The Jiayuguan Pass Great Wall嘉峪关长城

Being built at the foot of the Mt. Jiayu that located in the southwest of the Jiayuguan City,  TheMeandering its way through the Chinese landscape for 4200miles, the Great Wall culminates at Jiayuguan Pass in the Gobi Desert. Castle is flanked by two mountains thus making it a natural double walled fortress. This craftiness of the design served to entice invading soilders through the outer wall gate, where they would find themselves surrounded by arches shooting from the tops of both walls. It was said that the designer of the pass calculated his needs so precisely that when it was completed only a single brick was unused. which is the wall's terminal point that built in the Ming dynasty in the west China. This wall is 11.7 meters in height and 733 meters in length, it is actually a trapezoidal city pass with stately towers and turrets. Standing on the pass city wall, tourists can give an eye-popping view of the scenery nearby. 嘉峪关位于嘉峪关市西南方向的嘉峪山脚下,绵延4200米,长城的最精彩部分就在戈壁滩的嘉峪关。城堡两侧的两座山,使它成为天然的双重壁堡垒。这种设计可以诱惑敌人穿过外墙门,然后就发现自己被墙体顶端的射击手包围了。据说,当年设计此墙的时候计算精密,墙体完成以后,只有一块砖没用。它是中国西部长城的终点。此墙高11.7米,长733米,实际上,它就是一座有庄严的塔楼和炮塔的梯形城市通道。站在这里的城墙上,附近美景尽收眼底。

Ning Xia Ancient Great Wall宁夏古长城

This section was rammed with earth in the Warring States Period (403-221B.C.) and belonged to the Chin State. Its present height only ranges from 1meter to 3 meters. Every 200--300 meters, a block platform is attached to the wall. Many ruins of beacon towers are found in its nearby fields, on the mountains and on the mountain passes that it passes through. The Ning Xia Ancient Great Wall makes its journey from the Gansu Province then reaches the south part of the Xiji County, Ningxia Province, and then bends to the northeastward to wind around the Guyuan County. From there it bends to the southeast and runs through the Yangcheng and finally ends in the Zhenyuan County, Gansu Province.宁夏境内的长城,从战国开始,经过秦、汉、隋、明数朝的不断修筑,总长度达1500公里,有“中国长城博物馆”之称。这是战国时秦所修, 其线路大致由甘肃省进入宁夏西吉县南部, 后折向东北, 绕固原县城后, 再折向东南, 经城阳等地进入甘肃镇原县境。工程根据地势, 因地制宜, 以土夯成。保存高度在1─3米、每隔200─300米筑一凸出墙外的墩台, 长城附近和其经过的重要隘口、山顶都有烽燧遗址。在长城沿线,还有许多营、堡、障、烽火台等军事设施。通过1984年至1985年的全区文物普查,了解了历代在宁夏境内所修长城的时代、分布、走向及建筑等情况。在宁夏境内,战国秦长城全长约有200公里,是宁夏境内最古老的长城,秦汉时曾做过修缮和增补,明代亦曾加以利用。隋代曾在宁夏修筑过一段新的长城,以防御突厥、契丹的威胁。明代长城在总结前代经验的基础上,于地形的选择、材料的使用、城墙的构造以及工程技术等方面都有较大的进步。明代在全国长城沿线总共设有9个边境重镇,而在宁夏境内就设有宁夏和固原两镇,由此可见宁夏长城在全国边防上的重要地位。

 

 
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